Choosing the right type of air conditioner for your home is quintessential to having the desired comfort and keeping energy consumption under control.
While most homeowners focus on the capacity and energy ratings of an air conditioner, considering the type, design and functionality are also necessary.
These days, home air conditioners come in six types, which we’ll explain fully on this page:
- Window Air Conditioners
- Through-the-wall Air Conditioners
- Portable Air Conditioners
- Ductless Split Air Conditioners
- PTAC Cooling & Heating
- Central Air Conditioning
Every manufacturer has their own patented technologies, but at the core, all air conditioners have some basic similarities. each unit will have a refrigerant, compressor, condenser, evaporator coil and expansion valve that work in conjunction to cool down a room, entire house or office complex.
To help you learn more about these air conditioning systems and how they work, we put together this comprehensive guide discussing each type, so you can get a better idea of which one you may want to use for your home or office.
1. Window Air Conditioners
As the name implies, such air conditioners are installed at the windows.
A window air conditioner is one standalone unit. It is self-contained, which means all the components are inside the single case.
Window air conditioners are popular among homeowners since these units don’t require any elaborate installation and are very compact.
Using a part of the window, usually the lower half along with the sill, and a grille or encasement as the base, these air conditioners are relatively painless to install.
These devices pull hot air from the room and expel it outside, while blowing cold air into the space through the reasonably sized vents. Window air conditioners are most ideal for cooling one room at a time, or several connect rooms that don’t have doors to block air circulation.
2. Through-the-Wall Air Conditioners
Through the wall air conditioners are not very different from window air conditioners. In fact, the designs are almost identical and if you are not careful you could end up buying the wrong type.
Instead of mounting the unit by using an already available space (a window), through-the-wall air conditioners are mounted on the actual wall.
The major difference between through-the-wall air and window air conditioners is the housing design. Unlike window AC units, these devices do not have venting mechanisms on the sides of the housing. If they did, then cooling efficiency would be lowered because the venting grills would be blocked by the internal cavities of the walls.
Due to this special design, through-the-wall air conditioners have higher cooling capacities than windows units, but also weigh more.
3. Portable Air Conditioners
Portable air conditioners are another type of standalone unit with all components inside one case.
The major advantage of these devices is that they can be placed on the floor, do not need any permanent installation and can be moved around from room to room.
The design of such units includes an exhaust hose that carries hot air out of a room and expels it through a window vent or wall opening.
It is important to note that these appliances are best suited for areas measuring less than 600 square feet. At this time, higher powered cooling products don’t exist.
These units are a great solution for areas of the home that get hotter than everywhere else and it is not practical to install a window-mounted unit. Here’s another one of our guides on how to pick a portable AC unit for your home.
4. Ductless Split System Air Conditioners
Ductless split system air conditioners equally popular among homeowners and commercial property owners.
These systems offer a quiet operation because the actual noise making condenser is located outdoors, while the inside contains wall-mounted blowers.
Due to their design, ductless split air conditioners do not use ducts to send cold air throughout a home or office, but rather refrigeration lines that go from the condenser to the blower units. This is what allows these units to be used to cool multiple rooms from one system.
Depending on the capacity, the same outdoor unit can be hooked with more than one blower, which can be installed in one large room or several rooms with individual cooling controls.
These types of air conditioners do not require as large a hole in the wall as through-the-wall units. They only need a small outlet through the wall for the coil and the drainpipe.
Split air conditioners come in various designs, capacities and energy ratings. They are highly efficient but may require more maintenance than window or through-the-wall air conditioners. HGTV.com has a great article on the Pros and Cons of these systems.
5. PTAC Cooling & Heating
PTAC stands for Package Terminal Air Conditioner. While cooling is apparently highlighted in the acronym, PTACs can also heat the same space as it can cool, just as effectively.
These are commercial grade units most commonly opted for by commercial property owners. You are more likely to find these units at offices, hotels and assisted living facilities than inside a standard home.
The capacity range of these units is massive, hence making them ideal for small or large commercial premises. Multiple units can be controlled from a single location so there is administrative control.
These units are usually installed outside the room, above the floor or under the window. If you have ever seen or used a combination unit air conditioner and heater in a hotel room, then you’re already familiar with PTAC units.
6. Central Air Conditioning
Central air conditioning is the most efficient and also the largest system you can have inside a home or office building.
It is the default choice for large commercial properties and most new homes are outfitted with this type of air conditioner as well.
There is almost no noise from these types of air conditioning systems because the loud condenser unit is located outdoors. The evaporative part of the system sends cold air through ducts that is then circulated through vents in a room’s ceiling or floor.
Central air conditioners also act as dehumidifiers. Moisture is not as much of an issue as in other models or designs but there can be frosting in the vents or ducts if proper cooling settings are not used and if the entire system is not maintained.
Because of their massive design, such type of air conditioning is ideal for large properties or premises, not for cooling one or two rooms. If that is the case, a window or portable air conditioner is a better choice.